What do you think this means when transcribed into English?

From the manual: Currently, all tasks in Julia are executed in a single OS thread co-operatively. :stuck_out_tongue_winking_eye:

As an EE with a bit of OS knowledge, my transcription is:

Currently, all tasks run on a single thread: the CPU sees all tasks as a single program that executes serially. In order for each task to be given a chance to run, the tasks need to co-operate, which means they need to yield every once in a while. waiting, performing I/O and sleeping imply yield.

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Hmm, so how would I get the tasks to run in parallel, if they all had to share a single thread?
Btw, I know of @spawn, but it isn’t clear to me how it correlates with the sentence in the OP.

With only a single OS thread, there is no “in parallel”, at least not in the sense that two tasks execute a step in their respective code at the exact same time. With one thread, only one task can make progress at a time. The two tasks can however execute concurrently, that is they can each execute for a bit, then yield to the other task, let it execute for a bit, then switch back etc. until both are done executing. One classic example is how your OS is able to run more programs “at the same time” than it has hardware threads available for execution - this is also concurrency. See also here. You’ll also find plenty of ressources when you search for concurrency vs. parallelism online.

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I might be splitting hairs, but that sounds more like time-sharing then concurrency.

It’s probably a similar concept, but it’s named from the level of abstraction of your program - as far as your code is concerned, both are happening side by side. Most useful for when one task has to wait (e.g. for data to load from hard drive, network operation) but the other doesn’t.

But if neither has opportunity to wait (e.g. your tight inner loops), there’s not much benefit to single-thread concurrency.

I think the “Currently” means that in theory, tasks could be executed on different threads, potentially having the best of both worlds. But that’s presumably a lot more complicated to manage efficiently.

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That passage from the manual dates back to the dark ages (< v1.3) when all Tasks ran on a single thread (managed by libuv, IIRC), i.e., before they could be scheduled for simultaneous execution on Julia-runtime threads.

Ah, that makes more sense now. Thanks.