Hi community:

Forgive my boldness. I am new to Julia, and the reason I am using it is because how fast it is. I come from Python, and I have a function for raytracing (below). I need to migrate it to Julia, but I’m not quite sure how to introduce the events to the ODE Solver. Thanks anyway.

Raytracing can be accomplished by solving the following ODE system::

\begin{cases}
\frac{d\overrightarrow{x}}{dl} = \frac{\overrightarrow{p}}{s(\overrightarrow{x})}\\
\frac{d\overrightarrow{p}}{dl} = \nabla s(\overrightarrow{x})\\
\frac{dT}{dl} = s(\overrightarrow{x})
\end{cases} \qquad \overrightarrow{x}(l=0)=\overrightarrow{x_0}, \overrightarrow{p}(l=0)=\overrightarrow{p_0}

where \overrightarrow{x}=(x,z) s the position vector, \overrightarrow{p}=(p_x,p_z) is the rayparameter vector, s is the slowness, l is the lenght of the ray, y T is the traveltime.

```
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from scipy.integrate import solve_ivp
```

This is the right-hand-side function and the events

```
def rhsf(l, r, slowness, dsdx, dsdz, xaxis, zaxis, dx, dz):
"""RHS of raytracing ODE
Parameters
----------
r : dependent variable containing (x, z, px, pz, t)
l : indipendent variable l
slowness : slowness 2d model
dsdx : horizontal derivative of slowness 2d model
dsdz : vertical derivative of slowness 2d model
xaxis : horizontal axis
zaxis : vertical axis
dx : horizontal spacing
dz : vertical spacing
Returns
-------
drdt : RHS evaluation
"""
m, n = slowness.shape
# extract the different terms of the solution
x = r[0]
z = r[1]
px = r[2]
pz = r[3]
drdt = np.zeros(len(r))
# identify current position of the ray in the model
xx = (x - xaxis[0]) // dx
zz = (z - zaxis[0]) // dz
xx = min([xx, n-1])
xx = max([xx, 1])
zz = min([zz, m-1])
zz = max([zz, 1])
# extract s, ds/dx, ds/dz at current position (nearest-neighbour interpolation)
s = slowness[round(zz), round(xx)]
dsdx = dsdx[round(zz), round(xx)]
dsdz = dsdz[round(zz), round(xx)]
# evaluate RHS
drdt[0] = px/s
drdt[1] = pz/s
drdt[2] = dsdx
drdt[3] = dsdz
drdt[4] = s
return drdt
```

```
def event_left(l, r, slowness, dsdx, dsdz, xaxis, zaxis, dx, dz):
return r[0]-xaxis[0]
def event_right(l, r, slowness, dsdx, dsdz, xaxis, zaxis, dx, dz):
return xaxis[-1]-r[0]
def event_top(l, r, slowness, dsdx, dsdz, xaxis, zaxis, dx, dz):
return r[1]-zaxis[0]
def event_bottom(l, r, slowness, dsdx, dsdz, xaxis, zaxis, dx, dz):
return zaxis[-1]-r[1]
event_left.terminal = True # set to True to trigger termination as soon as the condition is met
event_left.direction = -1 # set to -1 if wa went to stop when going from positive to negative outputs of event
event_right.terminal = True # set to True to trigger termination as soon as the condition is met
event_right.direction = -1 # set to -1 if wa went to stop when going from positive to negative outputs of event
event_top.terminal = True # set to True to trigger termination as soon as the condition is met
event_top.direction = -1 # set to -1 if wa went to stop when going from positive to negative outputs of event
event_bottom.terminal = True # set to True to trigger termination as soon as the condition is met
event_bottom.direction = -1 # set to -1 if wa went to stop when going from positive to negative outputs of event
```

This is the raytrace function

```
def raytrace(vel, xaxis, zaxis, dx, dz, lstep, source, thetas):
"""Raytracing for multiple rays defined by the initial conditions (source, thetas)
Parameters
----------
vel : np.ndarray
2D Velocity model (nz x nx)
xaxis : np.ndarray
Horizonal axis
zaxis : np.ndarray
Vertical axis
dx : float
Horizonal spacing
dz : float
Vertical spacing
lstep : np.ndarray
Ray lenght axis
source : tuple
Source location
thetas : tuple
Take-off angles
"""
# Slowness and its spatial derivatives
slowness = 1./vel;
[dsdz, dsdx] = np.gradient(slowness, dz, dx)
df = pd.DataFrame(columns = ['Source', 'Theta', 'rx', 'rz'])
for theta in thetas:
# Initial condition
r0=[source[0], source[1],
sin(theta * np.pi / 180) / vel[izs, ixs],
cos(theta * np.pi / 180) / vel[izs, ixs], 0]
# Solve ODE
sol = solve_ivp(rhsf, [lstep[0], lstep[-1]], r0, t_eval=lstep,
args=(slowness, dsdx, dsdz, x, z, dx, dz), events=[event_right, event_left,
event_top, event_bottom])
r = sol['y'].T
# Display ray making sure we only plot the part of the ray that is inside the model
zeros = np.where(r[1:, 1] <= 0)[0]
maxs = np.where(r[:, 1] >= max(z))[0]
# Coordenadas del rayo y se guardan
rx, ry = r[:,0]/1000, r[:,1]/1000
for a in range(rx.size):
append = pd.Series(
{
'Source':source,
'Theta':theta,
'rx':rx[a],
'rz':ry[a]
}
)
df = pd.concat([df, append.to_frame().T], ignore_index=True)
return df
```