Each of the major components (CPU, GPU, RAM, SSD (solid state drive[s]) is only as helpful as the way they integrate in a given system. So very good matching (which really means, selecting a vendor and model) will be more helpful than trying to max out one or two of the components. Julia has very good support for numeric processing on some GPUs and large Monte Carlo simulations are a good candidate for acceleration that way. To play that part safely, choosing a recent model GPU from ??? looking for guidance on a non NVIDA GPU that our stuff works well on (if any)
with more than the minimum GPU memory (I’d say at least 2x the minimum, 4x is better – you would be using that memory for what it does with calculation rather than for rendering very high resolution (or well animated) graphics. Other people know more about those specifics.
I have found 1TB of fast, reliable (e.g. Samsung 960 Pro or for next level speed maybe Sabrent 2TB Rocket 4 [I have no direct knowledge of Sabrent]) SSD memory is really needed because some of that goes to swapping and other system nonsense. Again, it becomes a matter of budget balancing, however here – especially if you are dealing huge, changeable data sets/simulations and it helps if they load rather quickly – 1.5TB will be better (esp. on Windows). As a good way to satisfice, 1TB SSD and 0.5 or 1TB fast hard drive gives you a place to keep archival info and less often used large resources while still having at hand the things you use the most. Bear in mind that such a setup requires you do the management (what goes into which store) yourself [another reason that 1.5 or 2TB of SSD is nicer … if you do not need a huge amt of fast storage – that’s fine too].
For the CPU, something quite modern (it need not be the fastest of them all, just current with good specs and some local acclaim) – with a healthy number of “threads” is going to help performance. Since you are getting a workstation rather than a portable computer, your base costs are going to be less than for similar performance in a desktop/laptop. Do not ignore the sound or the heat that your box will generate. You should choose models that include good cooling with quiet fans and best are boxes that have noise abatement built in. Both the CPU and the GPU will have their own fans (probably, and that’s best). So each needs to be rather quiet unless your box lives away from your keyboard and monitor.
Do go with a vendor/model that you choose from what others’ recommend. It is easy to be mislead by the write-ups generally available. Members of The Julia Community who are on top of this information have proven highly reliable.