Hello,

I already posted this question on Stackoverflow, but decided I’d ask here as well.

Please find my question from Stackoverflow pasted below (verbatim).

I am trying to implement convolution by hand in Julia. I’m not too familiar with image processing or Julia, so maybe I’m biting more than I can chew.

Anyway, when I apply this method with a 3*3 edge filter `edge = [0 -1 0; -1 4 -1; 0 -1 0]`

as `convolve(img, edge)`

, I am getting an error saying that my values are exceeding the allowed values for the RGBA type.

### Code

```
function convolve(img::Matrix{<:Any}, kernel)
(half_kernel_w, half_kernel_h) = size(kernel) .÷ 2
(width, height) = size(kernel)
cpy_im = copy(img)
for row ∈ 1+half_kernel_h:height-half_kernel_h
for col ∈ 1+half_kernel_w:width-half_kernel_w
from_row, to_row = row .+ (-half_kernel_h, half_kernel_h)
from_col, to_col = col .+ (-half_kernel_h, half_kernel_h)
cpy_im[row, col] = sum((kernel .* RGB.(img[from_row:to_row, from_col:to_col])))
end
end
cpy_im
end
```

### Error (original)

```
ArgumentError: element type FixedPointNumbers.N0f8 is an 8-bit type representing 256 values from 0.0 to 1.0, but the values (-0.0039215684f0, -0.007843137f0, -0.007843137f0, 1.0f0) do not lie within this range.
See the READMEs for FixedPointNumbers and ColorTypes for more information.
```

I am able to identify a simple case where such error may occur (a white pixel surrounded by all black pixels or vice-versa). I tried “fixing” this by attempting to follow the advice here from another stackoverflow question, but I get more errors to the effect of `Math on colors is deliberately undefined in ColorTypes, but see the ColorVectorSpace package.`

.

### Code attempting to apply solution from the other SO question

```
function convolve(img::Matrix{<:Any}, kernel)
(half_kernel_w, half_kernel_h) = size(kernel) .÷ 2
(width, height) = size(kernel)
cpy_im = copy(img)
for row ∈ 1+half_kernel_h:height-half_kernel_h
for col ∈ 1+half_kernel_w:width-half_kernel_w
from_row, to_row = row .+ [-half_kernel_h, half_kernel_h]
from_col, to_col = col .+ [-half_kernel_h, half_kernel_h]
cpy_im[row, col] = sum((kernel .* RGB.(img[from_row:to_row, from_col:to_col] ./ 2 .+ 128)))
end
end
cpy_im
end
```

### Corresponding error

```
MethodError: no method matching +(::ColorTypes.RGBA{Float32}, ::Int64)
Math on colors is deliberately undefined in ColorTypes, but see the ColorVectorSpace package.
Closest candidates are:
+(::Any, ::Any, !Matched::Any, !Matched::Any...) at operators.jl:591
+(!Matched::T, ::T) where T<:Union{Int128, Int16, Int32, Int64, Int8, UInt128, UInt16, UInt32, UInt64, UInt8} at int.jl:87
+(!Matched::ChainRulesCore.AbstractThunk, ::Any) at ~/.julia/packages/ChainRulesCore/a4mIA/src/tangent_arithmetic.jl:122
```

Now, I can try using `convert`

etc., but when I look at the big picture, I start to wonder what the idiomatic way of solving this problem in Julia is. And that is my question. If you had to implement convolution by hand from scratch, what would be a good way to do so?