Gradient error in Flux model inputs

Hi all, I am trying to construct a loss function in Flux that is composed of a typical mean squared error component, as well as a derivative component. For some reason I get a Can't differentiate foreigncall expression error when I try to compute the gradient of the loss function. A minimal working example of the code is shown below. Does anybody know how to fix this/or have a work around?

using Flux

m = Chain(Dense(3, 10, relu), Dense(10, 10, relu), Dense(10, 1))
ps = Flux.params(m)

function loss(x, y)
    fitloss = Flux.Losses.mse(m(x), y) # typical loss function

    derivativeloss = abs2(gradient(a -> m(a)[1], x)[1][3]) #  problematic term (only care about derivative of the 3rd input)
    
    return fitloss + derivativeloss
end

xt = rand(3)
yt = rand(1)

gs = gradient(ps) do
    loss(xt, yt)
end

Note, this is essentially the same unsolved error as found here. Thanks for helping!

Hi, I would suggest you to use ForwardDiff for computing the inner derivative. :wink: In my case (differential equation solved by the neural network), it worked. You just need to add the following rules to Zygote to tackle dual numbers.

Pkg.add("ZygoteRules")
using ZygoteRules
ZygoteRules.@adjoint function ForwardDiff.Dual{T}(x, ẋ::Tuple) where T
  @assert length(ẋ) == 1
  ForwardDiff.Dual{T}(x, ẋ), ḋ -> (ḋ.partials[1], (ḋ.value,))
end
ZygoteRules.@adjoint ZygoteRules.literal_getproperty(d::ForwardDiff.Dual{T}, ::Val{:partials}) where T =
  d.partials, ṗ -> (ForwardDiff.Dual{T}(ṗ[1], 0),)
ZygoteRules.@adjoint ZygoteRules.literal_getproperty(d::ForwardDiff.Dual{T}, ::Val{:value}) where T =
  d.value, ẋ -> (ForwardDiff.Dual{T}(0, ẋ),)

Thanks for suggesting this! I actually tried using ForwardDiff but it also didn’t work (same error as below). I implemented your suggestion but alas it doesn’t work. Now I get a Mutating arrays is not supported error :frowning: Here is the code I used:

using Flux
using ForwardDiff
using ZygoteRules

ZygoteRules.@adjoint function ForwardDiff.Dual{T}(x, ẋ::Tuple) where T
  @assert length(ẋ) == 1
  ForwardDiff.Dual{T}(x, ẋ), ḋ -> (ḋ.partials[1], (ḋ.value,))
end

ZygoteRules.@adjoint ZygoteRules.literal_getproperty(d::ForwardDiff.Dual{T}, ::Val{:partials}) where T = d.partials, ṗ -> (ForwardDiff.Dual{T}(ṗ[1], 0),)
ZygoteRules.@adjoint ZygoteRules.literal_getproperty(d::ForwardDiff.Dual{T}, ::Val{:value}) where T = d.value, ẋ -> (ForwardDiff.Dual{T}(0, ẋ),)

m = Chain(Dense(3, 10, relu), Dense(10, 10, relu), Dense(10, 1))
ps = Flux.params(m)

function loss(x, y)
    fitloss = Flux.Losses.mse(m(x), y)

#     derivativeloss = abs2(gradient(a -> m(a)[1], x)[1][3]) # old version using Zygote 
    derivativeloss = abs2(ForwardDiff.gradient(a -> m(a)[1], x)[3]) # new version using ForwardDiff - still problematic
    
    return fitloss + derivativeloss
end

xt = rand(3)
yt = rand(1)

gs = gradient(ps) do
    loss(xt, yt)
end

Any other suggestions (hopeful expression)? Fiy, I am trying to do something resembling physics informed neural networks, but not of the form implemented in NeuralPDEs.jl, but rather as implemented here.

I think (not sure) that the problem is caused by your gradient calculation. I would suggest you to define your gradient function outside the loss and broadcast it over the array of values. This is my old code that solves y(x) - y’(x) = 0 by PINN, hope it will help.

Ο = Flux.Chain(Dense(1,T,softplus),Dense(T,1,softplus))
ο(t) = 1.0 + t*Ο([t])[1]
dο(t) = ForwardDiff.derivative(ο,t)
𝜣 = Flux.params(Ο)

#(3) Build loss function
function 𝕰(x)
    𝕰 = sum((ο.(x) .- dο.(x)).^2)
    𝕷 = 𝕰
    return 𝕷
end
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Thanks for all the help! I updated my code and it can now compute the “gradients”, but these all end up being zero… Here is the current version:

# need this to get the auto-diff to work
ZygoteRules.@adjoint function ForwardDiff.Dual{T}(x, ẋ::Tuple) where T
  @assert length(ẋ) == 1
  ForwardDiff.Dual{T}(x, ẋ), ḋ -> (ḋ.partials[1], (ḋ.value,))
end

ZygoteRules.@adjoint ZygoteRules.literal_getproperty(d::ForwardDiff.Dual{T}, ::Val{:partials}) where T = d.partials, ṗ -> (ForwardDiff.Dual{T}(ṗ[1], 0),)
ZygoteRules.@adjoint ZygoteRules.literal_getproperty(d::ForwardDiff.Dual{T}, ::Val{:value}) where T = d.value, ẋ -> (ForwardDiff.Dual{T}(0, ẋ),)
Zygote.refresh()

m = Chain(Dense(3, 10, relu), Dense(10, 10, relu), Dense(10, 1)) # [u0, k, t] -> u(t)
ps = Flux.params(m)

function get_time_function(x) # forced to do this. FordwardDiff.gradient doesn't work...
    mt(t) = m([x[1:2];t])[1]
    return mt
end

function loss(x, y) # x and y are arrays
    derivativeloss = 0.0f0 
    for i=1:size(x, 2)
        
        f = get_time_function(x[:, i]) # this feels very clunky... 
        dmt(t) = ForwardDiff.derivative(f, t) # dNN/dt @ x[:, i]
        derivativeloss += Float32(dmt(x[3]))

    end
    
    return derivativeloss
end

xts = rand(3, 10)
yts = rand(1, 10)

gs = gradient(ps) do
    loss(xts, yts)
end # all these gradients end up being zero... 

Zygote/Flux keeps on throwing errors no matter how I change the scheme… However, there seem to be a number of issues on Flux’s Github where people have run into similar problems, see here and here. I will ask there as well.

Update: I created an issue on Flux’s Github page and they solved the one dimensional case in a very elegant way, see here. To solve the multidimensional case one needs to write a fallback rule for getindex, see the linked issue. I will update this once I have a more concrete answer for the multidimensional case.

1 Like